Overhead Lines - References and Papers


[A] Power Flow Limits for Overhead Lines
  1. 1979 Annual Electric Power Survey. New York: Edison Electric Institute.
  2. EHV Transmission Line Reference Book. New York: Edison Electric Institute, 1968.
  3. Transmission Line Reference Book-345 kV and Above, Palo Alto, Ca: Electric Power Research Institute, 1975.
  4. Transmission Line Reference Book: HVDC to :600-kv. Palo Alto, Ca: Electric Power Research Institute.
  5. S.B. Crary Power System Stability, Vol. I, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1945.
  6. H.P. St. Clair, "Practical Concepts in Capability and Performance of Transmission Lines," AlEE Transactions Power Apparatus and Systems, Paper 53-338, presented at the AlEE Pacific General Meeting, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, September 1-4, 1953.
  7. R.D. Dunlop, R. Gutman, P.P. Marchenko, "Analytical Development of Loadability Characteristics for EHV and UHV Transmission Lines," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS98, pp. 606-617, March/April 1979.
[B] Transmission Line Design
  1. "National Electric Safety Code", 1997 Edition, C2-1997.
  2. "Relationships of National Electrical Safety Code Vertical Clearances and Potentially Conflicting Activity", Clapp, Allen L., IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 11, November 1985, pp. 3306-3312.
  3. "REA Bulletin 1724E-200, Design Manual for High Voltage Transmission Lines", Rural Electrification Administration, 9/3/92.
  4. Douglass, Dale A., "Economic Measures of Bare Overhead Conductor Characteristics,"IEEE Paper 86 TD 502-9 PWRD.
  5. Kennon, Richard E., and Douglass, Dale A., "EHV Transmission Line Design Opportunities for Cost Reduction," IEEE Paper 89 TD 434-2 PWRD.
[C] Thermal Rating of Lines
  1. Douglass, Dale A., and Rathbun, L.S., "AC Resistance of ACSR - Magnetic and temperature effects," IEEE Paper 84 SM 700-1.
  2. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "1991 Annual Book of ASTM Standards - Section 2, Nonferrous Metal Products," Volume 02.03, Electrical conductors, Including B-1 Standards.
  3. Kennelly, A.E., Laws, F.A., and Pierce, P.H., "Experimental Researches of Skin Effect in Conductors," AIEE Transactions, Vol. 34, Part 2, 1915, pp. 1953-2021.
  4. Wright, H.B., "Skin Effect in Tubular and Flat Conductors."
  5. Lewis, W.A., and Tuttle, P.D., "The Resistance and Reactance of Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced," AIEE Transactions, Vol. 77, Part III, 1958.
  6. Aluminum Association, "Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook," Third Edition, 1989.
  7. IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors," PES, IEEE Standard 738-1993.
  8. House, H.E., and Tuttle, P.D., "Current-Carrying Capacity of ACSR."
  9. IEEE Standard 738-93, "IEEE Standard for Calculation of Bare Overhead Conductor Temperature and Ampacity, Published 1993.
  10. CIGRE WG 05 - Conductors, "The Thermal Behaviour of Overhead Conductors," 22-81 (WG05) - 06, December, 1981.
  11. Black, W. Z. and Rehberg, R. L., "Simplified model for steady state and real-time ampacity of overhead conductors," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 104, Oct. 1985, pp 29-42.
  12. Davidson, G. A., et al., "Short-time thermal ratings for bare overhead conductors," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-88, No.3, Mar. 1969.
  13. ] House, H. E., Rigdon, W. S., Grosh, R. J., and Cottingham, W. B., "Emissivity of Weathered Conductors after Service in Rural and Industrial Environments," AIEE Transactions, pp. 891-896, Feb. 1963
  14. Morgan, V. T., "The Current carrying capacities of overhead line conductors." Paper A75 575-3, IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, 1978.
  15. Schurig, O. R. and Frick, C. U. "Heating and Current Carrying Capacity of Bare Conductor for Outdoor Service." General Electric Review, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 141-157, Mar. 1930.
  16. "Transmission Conductors Thermal Ratings," Paper 68-TAP-28, Report by Transmission Advisory Panel, East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement.
[D] High Temperature Effects - Conductor
  1. Barrett, J.S., Ralston, P. And Nigol, O., "Mechanical Behaviour of ACSR Conductors," CIGRE International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems, September 1-9, 1982.
  2. Rawlins, Charles B. "Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress Strain Behavior of ACSR," presented at IEEE Winter Meeting, Tampa, FL, February, 1998.
  3. Chisholm, W.A., "Ampacity Field Studies On Line With Low Operating Temperature," EPRI DTR Seminar, May, 1986.
  4. Harvey, JR. Creep of Transmission Line Conductors. IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, pp. 281-285, April 1969
  5. Harvey, JR and Larson, RE. Creep Equations of Conductors for Sag-Tension Calculations. IEEE Paper C72 190-2
  6. Harvey, JR and Larson RE. Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-89, No. 3, pp. 380-386, March 1970
  7. Hickernell, L.F., Jones, A.A., and Snyder, C.J. Hy-Therm Copper - An Improved Overhead Line Conductor. AIEE Trans., Vol. 68, pp. 22-27, 1949.
[E] High Temperature Effects - Connectors
  1. Aronstein, J Conduction in Failing Aluminum Connections Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts Montreal, Quebec August 1990
  2. Bennett, EH Designing Compression Fittings for Long-Term Survival, Bonneville Power Engineering Symposium, April 1992
  3. Braunovic, M, Effect of Contact Aid Compounds on the Performance of Bolted Aluminum-to-Aluminum Joints Under Current Cycling Conditions, 31st Annual Holm Conference, Chicago IL, September 1985
  4. Dalle, B. Size and Aging of Joints for Bare Conductors of Overhead Line, Electricite de France, December 1982.
  5. DeLuca, CB, Current Cycling Connectors in Tension, Proceedings of Seminar on Effects of Elevated Temperature Operation on Overhead Conductors and Accessories, pp. 110-119, Atlanta, Georgia, May 1986
  6. Dupre, H. The Problems Involved in Designing Connectors for Aluminum Cable. AIEE 51-325, September 1951
  7. Frank, W, The Critical Aspects of Steel Hardware in Aluminum Connectors, AIEE Transmission and Distribution Committee, June 1959
  8. Howitt, WB, Elevated Temperature Performance of Conductor Accessories, Proceedings of Seminar on Effects of Elevated Temperature Operation on Overhead Conductors and Accessories, pp. 120-139 Atlanta, Georgia, May 1986
  9. Naybour, R.D. and Farrell,T. Degradation Mechanisms of Mechanical Connectors on Aluminum Conductors. PROC IEE, Vol. 120, No. 2, pp. 273-280, February 1973
  10. Reding, JL, Investigation of Thrasher Compression Fittings on BPA's Direct Current Transmission Line IEEE Trans., PWRD-6, No. 4, pp. 1616-1622, October 1991
  11. Standard, EEOI-NEMA. Connectors for use Between Aluminum or Aluminum-Copper Overhead Conductors. NEMA Pub. No. CC 3-1973, August 1973.
[F] High Temperature Effects - Hardware
  1. Adams, HW, Thermal Cycle Tests of SSAC and Associated Fittings, Reynolds Aluminum, Series No. 34, May 1976
  2. Bissiri, A., Suspension Clamp Power Loss Tests, Electrical World, Vol. 129, pp. 58-62, January 1948
  3. Champa, RJ, Heating Characteristics of the Armor-Grip Suspension at Elevated Temperatures, Preformed Line Products Co Research and Engineering, TR-591-E, November 1976
  4. Crabb, VL and Sheadel, JM. Magnetic Heating of Suspension Clamps. AIEE Transactions, Vol. 68, pp. 1032-1035, 1949.
  5. Farley, R.W. Power Losses in Malleable Iron and Aluminum Overhead Line Suspension Clamps. Electrical Review, Vol. 168, No. 15, 1961
  6. Morgan, V.T. Non-magnetic Suspension Clamps for Overhead Power Lines,. Electrical Review, Vol. 175, No. 9, pp. 314-317, August 1964
  7. Nabet, Guive, Effect of Elevated Temperature on Conductors and Associated Hardware, presented at EEI T&D Baltimore, Maryland, October 1985
  8. Ohio Brass, Cooler in the Clamp, Hi-Tension News, p.7, September 1959
  9. Olmsted, LM, Joints and Hardware Limit Overhead Conductor Ratings, Electrical World, Vol. 127, pp. 42-45, January 1947
[G] Probabilistic Rating Methods
  1. Beers, G.M., et al, "Transmission Conductor Ratings", AIEE Transactions, Paper 63-86.
  2. Hsaio, Wen, San Diego Gas & Electric, Private communication.
  3. Reding, J.L., "A Method for Determining Probability Based Allowable Current Ratings for BPA's Transmission Lines", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 1, January, 1994.
[H] Dynamic Rating Methods
  1. Black, W.Z. and Byrd, W.R., "Real Time Ampacity Model for Overhead Lines," IEEE Transactions, Vol. PAS-102, No. 7, July, 1983, pp. 2289-2293.
  2. Black, W.Z., Byrd, W.R., Bush, R.A. and Champion, T.C., "Experimental Verification of a Real Time Program for the Determination of Temperature and Sag of Overhead Lines," Paper 83 WM 144-3, January, 1983.
  3. Seppa, Tapani, et al. "Use of On-Line Tension Monitoring for Real Time Thermal Ratings, Ice Loads, and Other Environmental Effects, CIGRE International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems, September, 1998, Paris, France.
  4. Wong, T. Y., Findlay, J. A., and McMurtie, A. N., "An On-Line Method for Transmission Ampacity Evaluation," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, no. 2, Feb. 1982.
  5. Foss, S. D., Lin, S. H., and Fernandez, R. A., "Dynamic Thermal Line Ratings-Part 1-Dynamic ampacity rating algorithm." IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-102, no. 6, pp. 1858-1864, June 1983.
  6. Davis, M. W., Development of Real Time Thermal Rating System. St. Louis, MO: Edison Electrical Institute T&D, May 19, 1979.
  7. Davis, M. W., "A new thermal rating approach: the real time thermal rating system for strategic overhead conductor transmission lines, Part III." IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-97, pp. 444-455, Mar./Apr. 1978.
  8. Davis, M. W., "A new thermal rating approach: the real time thermal rating system for strategic overhead conductor transmission lines, Part II." IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-97, pp. 810-825, Mar./Apr. 1978.
  9. Davis, M. W., "A new thermal rating approach: the real time thermal rating system for strategic overhead transmission lines, Part IV." IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-99, pp. 2184-2192, Nov./Dec. 1980.
[I] Re-conductoring Lines with Novel Conductors
  1. Adams, H.W., "Steel Supported Aluminum Conductors (SSAC) for Overhead Transmission Lines," IEEE Paper T 74 054-3, Presented at the IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting, 1974.
  2. Douglass, D.A., and Roche, J.B., "T2 Wind Motion Resistant Conductor," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 10, October 1985.
  3. Kirkpatrick, L.A., McCulloch, A.R., and Pue-Gilchrist, A.C., "Ten Years of Progress with Self-Damping Conductor," IEEE Paper F 79 736-0, Presented at the IEEE PES Summer Meeting, 1979.
  4. Edwards, A.T., and Livingston, A.E., "Self-Damping Conductors for the Control of Vibration and Galloping of Transmission Lines," IEEE Paper 68 C 59 PWR.
  5. Thrash, F. Ridley, .[J] Sag-tension Calculations for Overhead Lines
  6. Ehrenburg, D.O., "Transmission Line Catenary Calculations," AIEE Paper, Committee on Power Transmission & Distribution, July 1935.
  7. Winkelman, P.F., "Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration, AIEE Paper 59-900, June 1959.
  8. National Electric Safety Code, 1993 Edition.
  9. Fink, D.G., and Beaty, H.W., "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers," 13th Edition, McGraw Hill.
  10. Aluminum Company of America, "Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for ACSR and Other Conductors."
  11. Aluminum Association, "Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors," Published 7/15/74.
  12. "Limitations on Stringing and Sagging Conductors," Paper TP64-146, Working Group of the IEEE Towers, Poles, and Conductors Subcommittee of the Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society.
  13. "IEEE Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors," IEEE Standard 524-1993, Published by IEEE, New York, NY.
  14. Cahill, T., "Development of Low-Creep ACSR Conductor," Wire Journal, July 1973.
  15. Overend, P.R., and Smith, S., "Impulse Time Method of Sag Measurement."